History of India
The history of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. In two of these, in the 6th century BCE, Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were born.
The subcontinent was united under the Maurya Empire during the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. It subsequently became fragmented, with various parts ruled by numerous Middle kingdoms for the next ten centuries. Its northern regions were united once again in the 4th century CE, and remained so for two centuries thereafter, under the Gupta Empire. This period was known as the "Golden Age of India." During the same time, and for several centuries afterwards, India, under the rule of the Chalukyas, Cholas, Pallavas and Pandyas, experienced its own golden age, during which Hinduism and Buddhism spread to much of south-east Asia.
Islam arrived on the subcontinent early in the 8th century CE with the conquest of Baluchistan and Sindh by Muhammad bin Qasim. Islamic invasions from Central Asia between the 10th and 15th centuries CE brought most of northern India under the rule at first of the Delhi Sultanate and later of the Mughals. Mughal rule, which ushered in a remarkable flowering of art and architecture, came to cover most of the northern parts of the subcontinent. Nevertheless, several independent kingdoms, such as the Maratha Empire and the Vijayanagara Empire, flourished contemporaneously, in Western and southern India respectively.
Beginning in the mid-18th century and over the next century, India was gradually annexed by the British East India Company. Dissatisfaction with Company rule led to the First War of Indian Independence, after which India was directly administered by the British Crown and witnessed a period of both rapid development of infrastructure and economic decline.
During the first half of the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress, and later joined by the Muslim League. The subcontinent gained independence from Great Britain in 1947, after being partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan. Pakistan's eastern wing became the nation of Bangladesh in 1971.
Source - Wikipedia
Indian American community in San Diego
First person from India seems to have migrated to the United States in the early 19th century. Hundreds of farmers from the state of Punjab migrated to work in San Joaquin and Imperial valleys in the early 20th century and tens of students came to the US to study. Many of these people made the US their home. Inflow of immigrants from India gathered momentum only after 1975 and increased much faster after 1985. Today, there are about 2.5 million people of India origin in the United States, nearly two-thirds of them were born in India. The average education of this group is about 18 years and enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the country.
Dr. Hargobind Khorana, Dr. Subramaniam Chandrasekhar and Dr. Amartya Sen received Noble Prizes. Maestro Zubin Mehta, Sitar Maestro Pundit Ravi Sankar, PEPSI Chairwoman Indra Nooyi, Women Astronauts Kalpana Chawla and Sunita Williams and many more accomplished people contributing to the growth and development of this country are from India.
The first person from India who settled down in San Diego County was Harinder (known as Harry) Singh. He came here around 1918 and became a very prosperous, largest producer of tomatoes in the country. His descendents still cultivate the same lands, partly owned and partly leased, along interstate route 5 North. World Re-known spiritual master Yogananda Parmahamsa, founder of Self-Realization Fellowship in Encinitas, lived in the county for many years. Also, the first person of Asian descent, ever elected to the United States Congress, Dr. Dalip Singh Saund, known as Judge Saund for his constituents, spent a lot of time in San Diego. He was elected to the Congress from Imperial Valley in 1956 against very stiff opposition. His health condition prevented him from serving in the Congress after his 1961 election victory as a democrat. His portrait is now hung in the Capital as the first Asian to be elected to the Congress.
Indian American population in San Diego blossomed after 1990s and today, there are over 17,000 people. All those who are in the labor force are professionals, some of them occupying leadership positions in communication and biotech industries and named chairs in UCSD, Salk Institute and SDSU.
The Indian American community has established the Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Scholarship for high school graduates of San Diego County irrespective of origin and the Silver Jubilee of this award will be celebrated in 2008. During 2006 and 2007, $65,000 was given as scholarships to 37 students.
There are three places in San Diego for Hindu worship and over 30 restaurants specializing in Indian food and delicacies.